Creed, Gerald W. 2000. “Family Values and Domestic Economies.” Annual Review of Anthropology. Vol.29, pp.329-355.
– Living arrangements are essential to concepts of the family.
– Proper families are constituted with particular types of blood and conjugal relations.
- – Gays and lesbians claim that their domestic relationships constitute as “chosen” families.
- – Such actions give defenders of family values more proof of how far the family has degenerated.
- – Family values begin with the value of the family
- – Domestic arrangements are meaningful everywhere studied by anthropologist.
- – There is no universal understanding of family, however there are ideas of how
o Relationships of blood
Should relate and articulate with processes of social reproduction.
– Different economic experiences in different cultures leads to; different family forms, different family relations, and varied family commitments.
– The value of the family begins with its everyday economic significance.
This article reviews:
– Literature that illuminates the interaction between domestic arrangements
– The cultural value attached to the family
– Examines work published since Yanagisako’s (author/anthropologist) magisterial trek over similar terrain.
o Yanagisakos believes most researchers have given up the search towards defining family and household.
o Instead researchers have given into contingent characterizations in different cultural context.
– Author of this article agrees with those researchers. He doesn’t want to define “family” and “household”.
FROM EVOLUTION TO INTERACTION
– There are two opposing views of relationship between family and economy
-Value of family is associated with a particular family form that is conducive to capitalist development.
– Value of family is seen in its complete adaptability to economic opportunities and exigencies.
– The two opposing view imply that that cultural commitments to the family were non-existent or completely determinant.
– Studies of contemporary domestic economies show the value of the family in different places and different economic circumstances. They can be grouped in these categories:
o The family farm.
o Households and development
o The family business
o Working-class families
Family Farms and Development
– The concept of family farms gives proof of the relationship between family culture and economy.
– The more family oriented the farm, the better the performance even though there might be sufficient self-exploitation.
– Although income diversification, migration, and education are seen as the death of the family farm, it can actually sustain a family farm in periods of difficulties.
Households and development
– In situations where there are many people but land is scarce, small holding intensive agriculture is more effective than industrial.
– Household produces its own workers, often their own kids.
– Studies done on family business demonstrates the economic value of economic commitments but don’t show how economic success can create family sentiments.
– Small family business are often passed on from one generation to the next, issues arise when a family member wants to pursue his/her own career.
Working Class families
– According to Stacey’s analysis of Working-class family in Silicon Valley, women in the labor force challenge family patriarchy.
– Women wages are essential to their family’s economy.
– Many workers turn family idioms to their own advantage by criticizing owners for failing to fulfill familial obligations.
THE NEW VALUE OF OLD VALUES
– The family seems to be increasing economic significance.
– The rise of small family businesses has to do with the now flexible global economy and working from home.
– Migration changes family values
– Migrant families adapt to their new environment, but shape the structure of family left behind.
– Economic security is needed now more than ever; this is made evident by global phenomenon of female-head households.
– There is a new value of family arrangements in an economic context where multiple incomes are needed to sustain a family.
INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE FAMILY (conclusion)
– Author believes that there are many flaws in many family studies.
– Past studies have made the household an actor itself and have ignored social relations between family members.
– Studies have also only focused on family conflict based on the economy.
– He believes family considerations effect individual decisions about activities of a family business.
– Strategic behavior varies with the family development cycle because interest of different generations and genders vary as well.
– Technology and globalization has affected family strategies.
o Has made it easier for people and money to move around the world.
o Has increased communications and real-time interaction has made it easier for migrants.
– We will never understand domestic economies without situating them within larger context of communities and states.
– Families take on all emotional and material responsibility, previously shared BETWEEN families.
– In the past decades family have become the sole real community, supplemented by imagined or virtual ones.